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LCD (liquid-crystal display)

LCD (liquid-crystal display) refers to the display with a flat panel. Specifically, it refers to the optical device that makes use of the optical modulation characteristics of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do not give out light directly, but produce colorful or monochromatic images by means of a back-light or reflector. LCDs can be used to display arbitrary images (like a general computer display) or fixed images with low information content. They can be displayed or hidden like a digital clock, such as preset words, digits, seven-segment displays, etc. The technology used is basically the same. But those arbitrary images consist of a great many small pixels, whereas other displays are made up of larger elements.

LCDs can be applied to various fields such as LCD televisions, computer monitors, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, indoor and outdoor signage, etc. Small LCD screens are commonly used in portable devices such as digital cameras, watches, calculators, mobile telephones (including smartphones), etc. They are also used in electronic products such as DVD players, video game devices, clocks, etc. Those heavy, bulky CRT (cathode ray tube) displays have been taken place by LCD screens, covering almost all applications. LCD screens can be used in various sizes of screens compared with CRT and plasma displays. The sizes range from small digital watches to large television receivers.

Without phosphors, image burn-in seldom happens on LCD screens even if a static image has been displayed for a long time. A typical case is the frame of an airline's flight schedule indoors. However, LCDs are vulnerable to be affected by the persistence of image. Compared with CRT, LCD screen is more energy-saving, and can be dealt with more safely; it can be used in electronic devices more efficiently, as its power consumption is low. By 2008, annual sales of LCD televisions were more than those of CRT around the world. Then CRT became out of date in most cases.
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